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PRESIDENT'S ORDER 14 of 1985

REVIVAL OF THE CONSTITUTION OF 1973 ORDER, 1985

[Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary, Part-1, 2nd March 1985]

No. F 17(3)/85-Pub.


The following Order made by the President is hereby published for general information: --

In pursuance of the Proclamation of the fifth day of July, 1977 and in exercise of all powers enabling him in that behalf, the President is pleased to make the following Order: --

1.
Short title and commencement.
(1)
This Order may be called the Revival of the Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985.
(2)
It shall come into force at once.


2.
Amendment of the Constitution.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973, is hereby amended to the extent and in the manner specified in the third column of the Schedule.


3.
First meetings of National Assembly, Senate and Provincial Assemblies.
(1)
The first meeting of a Provincial Assembly shall be held on the twelfth day of March, 1985, for the election of the members to fill seats reserved in the Assembly for women and the members of the Senate and transaction of such other business as the President may specify.
(2)
The first meeting of the National Assembly shall be held on the twentieth day of March, 1985, for the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, the members to fill seats reserved in the Assembly for women and the members of the Senate from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Federal Capital and the transaction of such other business as the President may specify.
(3)
The first meeting of the Senate shall be held on the twenty-first day of March 1985, for the election of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman.
(4)
The National Assembly and the Senate shall meet in joint sitting on the twenty-third day of March 1985.


4.
Revival of Constitution of 1973, etc.
The provisions of the Constitution, as amended by this Order, shall stand revived on such day as the President may, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint and different days may be so appointed in respect of different provisions.


5.
Removal of difficulties.
(1)
If any difficulty arises in giving effect to any of the Provisions of this Order, the President may make such provisions and pass such orders as he may deem fit.
(2)
The validity of any provision made or orders passed, under clause (1) shall not be called in question in any Court.

THE SCHEDULE

(See Article 2)

Serial No. Number of Article or Chapter, etc Amendments made
1. 1. In this Article, and in the succeeding provisions of the Constitution, for the word "Parliament" wherever occurring, the words and brackets "Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)" shall be substituted.
2. Part-I. After Article 2, the following new Article shall be inserted, namely: ---

"2A
The Objectives Resolution to form part of substantive provisions.
The principles and provisions set out in the Objectives Resolution reproduced in the Annex are hereby made substantive part of the Constitution and shall have effect accordingly,".
3. 5. In clause (2), for the word "basic" the word "inviolable" shall be substituted.
4. 27. In clause (1), in the first proviso, for the word "ten" the word "twenty" shall be substituted.
5. 31. In clause (2), in paragraph (c), after the word and comma "Zakat", the word and comma "ushr" shall be inserted.
6. 41.
1.
For clause (3) the following shall be substituted, namely:---
"(3)
The President to be elected after the expiration of the term specified in clause (7) shall be elected in accordance with the provisions of the Second Schedule by the members of an electoral college consisting of---
(a)
the members of both Houses; and
(b)
the members of the Provincial Assemblies,".


2.
After clause (6), the following new clause shall be inserted, namely:--
"(7)
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article or Article 43 or any other Article of the Constitution or any other law, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, in consequence of the result of the referendum held on the nineteenth day of December, 1984, shall become the President of Pakistan on the day of the first meeting of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) in joint sitting summoned after the elections to the Houses of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and shall hold office for a term of five years from that day, and Article 44 and other provisions of the Constitution shall apply accordingly."
7. 46. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely:---
"46.
Duties of Prime Minister in relation to President.
It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister--
(a)
to communicate to the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation;
(b)
to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Federation and proposals for legislation as the President may call for; and
(c)
If the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Cabinet any matter on which a decision has been taken by the Prime Minister or a Minister but which has not been considered by the Cabinet."
8. 47.
1.
In the marginal heading, after the word "Removal", the words " or impeachment" shall be inserted.


2.
For clauses (1) and (2) the following shall be substituted, namely:---
"(1)
Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, the President may, in accordance with the provisions of this Article, be removed from office on the ground of physical or mental incapacity or impeached on a charge of violating the Constitution or gross misconduct.
(2)
Not less than one half of the total membership of either House may give to the Speaker of the National Assembly or, as the case may be, the Chairman written notice of its intention to move a resolution for the removal of, or, as the case may be, to impeach, the President; and such notice shall set out the particulars of his incapacity or of the charge against him.".
9. 48. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely: --
"48.
President to act on advice, etc.
(1)
In the exercise of his functions, the President shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or appropriate Minister:
Provided that the President may require the Cabinet to reconsider or consider such advice, as the case may be, either generally, or otherwise, and the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration or consideration.
(2)
Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (l), the President shall act in his discretion in respect of any matter in respect of which he is empowered by the Constitution to do so.
(3)
If any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter in respect of which the President is by the Constitution empowered to act in his discretion, the decision of the President in his discretion shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the President shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion.
(4)
The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered to the President by the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, a Minister or Minister of State shall not be inquired into in, or by, any Court, tribunal or other authority.
(5)
Where the President dissolves the National Assembly, he shall, in his discretion,--
(a)
appoint a date, not later than one hundred days from the date of the dissolution, for the holding of a general election to the Assembly; and
(b)
appoint a caretaker Cabinet.
(6)
If, at any time, the President, in his discretion, or on the advice of the Prime Minister, considers that it is desirable that any matter of national importance should be referred to a referendum, the President may cause the matter to be referred to a referendum in the form of a question that is capable of being answered either by "Yes" or "No".
(7)
An Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) may lay down the procedure for the holding of a referendum and the compiling and consolidation of the result of a referendum."
10. 50. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely: --
"50.
Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
There shall be a Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of Pakistan consisting of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the National Assembly and the Senate."
11. 51.
1.
In clause (1), for the words "two hundred" the words "two hundred and seven Muslim" shall be substituted.


2.
In clause (2), --
(a)
in paragraph (b), for the word " eighteen" the word "twenty-one" shall be substituted;
(b)
in paragraph (d), for the colon at the end a full-stop shall be substituted; and
(c)
the proviso shall be omitted.


3.
For clause (2A) the following shall be substituted, namely:--
"(2A)
In addition to the number of seats referred to in clause (1), there shall be in the National Assembly ten additional seats reserved as follows for the persons referred to in clause (3) of Article 106.
Christians. 4
Hindus and persons belonging to the scheduled casts. 4
Sikh, Buddhist and Parsi communities and other non-Muslims. 1
Persons belonging to the Quadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves Ahmadis) 1


4.
In clause (4), for the words "ten seats" the words "twenty seats" shall be substituted.


5.
For clauses (4A) and (5) the following shall be substituted, namely: --
"(4A)
The members to fill the seats referred to in clause (2A) shall be elected, simultaneously with the members to fill the seats referred to in clause (1), on the basis of separate electorates by direct and free vote in accordance with law.
(5)
As soon as practicable after the general election to the National Assembly, the members to fill seats reserved for women which are allocated to a Province under clause (4) shall be elected in accordance with law on the basis of the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote by the electoral college consisting of the persons elected to the Assembly from that Province."
12. 54. In clause (2), for the word "two" the word "three", and for the word "thirty" the word "sixty", shall be substituted.
13. 56. This Article shall be re-numbered as clause (1) and after clause (1) re-numbered aforesaid, the following new clause shall be added, namely: -
"(2)
The President may send messages to either House, whether with respect to a Bill then pending in the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or otherwise, and a House to which any massage is so sent shall with all convenient dispatch consider any matter required by the massage to be taken into consideration.
(3)
At the commencement of each session of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), the President shall address both Houses assembled together and inform the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) of the causes of its summons.
(4)
Provisions shall be made in the clauses for regulating the procedure of a house and the conduct of its business for the allotment of time for discussion of the matters referred to in the address of the President."
14. 58.
1.
This Article shall be re-numbered as clause (1) and, in clause (1) re-numbered as aforesaid, in the Explanation, the words, brackets and figures "or a Federal Minister performing the functions of Prime Minister under clause (1) or clause (3) of Article 95" shall be omitted.


2.
After clause (1), re-numbered and amended as aforesaid, the following new clause shall be added, namely: ---
"(2)
The President may also dissolve the National Assembly in his discretion where, in his opinion, An appeal to the electorate is necessary.".
15. 59.
1.
In clause (1): --
(a)
for the word "sixty-three" the word "eighty-seven" shall be substituted;
(b)
In paragraph (b):--
(i)
for the word "five" the word "eight" shall be substituted; and
(ii)
the word "and" at the end shall be omitted;
(c)
in paragraph (c):-
(i)
for the word "two" the word "three" shall be substituted; and
(ii)
for the full stop at the end the semicolon and word "and " shall be substituted; and
(d)
after paragraph (c), amended as aforesaid, the following new paragraph shall be added, namely:-
"(d)
five shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly to represent Ulema, technocrats and other professionals.".


2.
For clause (3) the following shall be substituted, namely: -
"(3)
The Senate shall not be subject to dissolution but the term of its members, who shall retire as follows, shall be six years:--
(a)
of the members referred to in paragraphs (a) and (d) of clause (1), six shall retire after the expiration of the first two years, six shall retire after the expiration of the next two years and seven shall retire after the expiration of the next two years;
(b)
of the members referred to in paragraph (b), two shall retire after the expiration of the first two years and three shall retire after the expiration of every two years thereafter; and
(c)
of the members referred to in paragraph (c), one shall retire after the expiration of every two years:
Provided that the term of office of a person elected or chosen to fill a casual vacancy shall be the un-expired term of the member whose vacancy he has filled.".
3.
After clause (3), substituted as aforesaid, the following new clause shall be added, namely:-
"(4)
A casual vacancy in the office of a member referred to in paragraph (d) of clause (1) shall be filled for the remainder of the term of such member by the members of the Provincial Assembly by whom such member had been elected electing another person under the said paragraph.".
16. 62 and 63. For these Articles the following shall be substituted, namely:--
"62.
Qualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
A person shall not be qualified to be elected or chosen as a member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) unless--
(a)
he is a citizen of Pakistan;
(b)
he is, in the case of National Assembly, not less than twenty-five years of age and is enrolled as a voter in any electoral roll for election to a Muslim seat or a non-Muslim seat, as the case may be, in that Assembly;
(c)
he is, in the case of Senate, not less than thirty years of age and is enrolled as a voter in any area in a Province or, as the case may be, the Federal Capital or the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, from where he seeks membership;
(d)
he is of good character and is not commonly known as one who violates Islamic Injunctions;
(e)
he has adequate knowledge of Islamic teachings and practices obligatory duties prescribed by Islam as well as abstains from major sins;
(f)
he is sagacious, righteous and non-profligate and honest and ameen;
(g)
he has not been convicted for crime involving moral turpitude or for giving false evidence;
(h)
he has not, after the establishment of Pakistan, work against the integrity of the country or opposed the ideology of Pakistan;
Provided that the disqualifications specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) shall not apply to a person who is a non-Muslim, but such a person shall have good moral reputation; and
(i)
he possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed by Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).


"63.
Disqualifications for membership of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(1)
A person shall be disqualified from being elected or chosen as, and from being a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), if --
(a)
he is of unsound mind and has been so declared by a competent Court; or
(b)
he is an un-discharged insolvent; or
(c)
he ceases to be a citizen of Pakistan, or acquires the citizenship of a foreign State; or
(d)
he holds an office of profit in the service of Pakistan other than an office declared by law not to disqualify its holder; or
(e)
he is in the service of any statutory body or any body which is owned or controlled by the Government or in which the Government has a controlling share or interest; or
(f)
being a citizen of Pakistan by virtue of section 14B of the Pakistan Citizenship Act, 1951 (II of 1951), he is for the time being disqualified under any law in force in Azad Jammu and Kashmir from being elected as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Azad Jammu and Kashmir; or
(g)
he is propagating any opinion, or acting in any manner, prejudicial to the ideology of Pakistan, or the sovereignty, integrity or security of Pakistan, or morality, or the maintenance of public order, or the integrity or independence of the judiciary of Pakistan, or which defames or brings into ridicule the judiciary or the Armed Forces of Pakistan; or
(h)
he has been, on conviction for any offence which in the opinion of the Chief Election Commissioner involves moral turpitude, sentenced to imprisonment for a term of not less than two years, unless a period of five years has elapsed since his release; or
(i)
he has been dismissed from the service of Pakistan on the ground of misconduct, unless a period of five years has elapsed since his dismissal; or
(j)
he has been removed or compulsorily retired from the service of Pakistan on the ground of misconduct unless a period of three years has elapsed since his removal or compulsory retirement; or
(k)
he has been in the service of Pakistan or of any statutory body or any body which is owned or controlled by the Government or in which the Government has controlling share or interest, unless a period of two years has elapsed since he ceased to be in such service; or
(l)
he is found guilty of a corrupt or illegal practice under any law for the time being in force, unless a period of five years has elapsed from the date on which that order takes effect ; or
(m)
he has been convicted under section 7 of the Political Parties Act, 1962 (III of 1962), unless a period of five years has elapsed from the date of such conviction; or
(n)
he, whether by himself or by any person or body of persons in trust for him or for his benefit or on his account or as a member of a Hindu undivided family, has any share or interest in a contract, not being a contract between a cooperative society and Government, for the supply of goods to, or for the execution of any contract or for the performance of any service under taken by, Government :

Provided that the disqualification under this paragraph shall not apply to a person--
(i)
where the share or interest in the contract devolves on him by inheritance or succession or as a legatee, executor or administrator, until the expiration of six months after it has so devolved on him;
(ii)
where the contract has been entered into by or on behalf of a public company as defined in the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984), of which he is a shareholder but is not a director holding an office of profit under the company; or
(iii)
where he is a member of a Hindu undivided family and the contract has been entered into by any other member of that family in the course of carrying on a separate business in which he has no share or interest; or
Explanation.
In this Article "goods" does not include agricultural produce or commodity grown or produced by him or such goods as he is, under any directive of Government or any law for the time being in force, under a duty or obligation to supply;
(o)
he holds any office of profit in the service of Pakistan other than the following offices, namely :-
(i)
an office which is not whole time office remunerated either by salary or by fee;
(ii)
the office of Lumbardar, whether called by this or any other title;
(iii)
the Qaumi Razakars;
(iv)
any office the holder whereof, by virtue of such office, if liable to be called up for military training or military service under any law providing for the constitution or raising of a Force; or
(p)
he is for the time being disqualified from being elected or chosen as a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or of a Provincial Assembly under any law for the time being in force.
(2)
If any question arises whether a member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) has become disqualified from being a member, the Speaker or, as the case may be, the Chairman shall refer the question to the Chief Election Commissioner and, if the Chief Election Commissioner is of the opinion that the member has become disqualified, he shall cease to be a member and his seat shall become vacant.".
17. 70 & 71. For these Articles the following shall be substituted, namely:--
"70.
Introduction and passing of Bills.
(1)
A Bill with respect to any matter in the Federal Legislative List or in the Concurrent Legislative List may originate in either House and shall, if it is passed by the House in which it originated, be transmitted to the other House; and, if the Bill is passed without amendment, by the other House also, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
(2)
If a Bill transmitted to a House under clause (1) is rejected or is not passed within ninety days of its receipt or is passed with amendment, the Bill, at the request of the House in which it originated, shall be considered in a joint sitting.
(3)
If a request is made under clause (2), the President shall summon a joint sitting; and, if the Bill is passed in the joint sitting with or without amendment, by the votes of the majority of the total membership of the two Houses, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
(4)
In this Article and the succeeding provisions of the Constitution, "Federal Legislative List" and "Concurrent Legislative List" mean respectively the Federal Legislative List and the Concurrent Legislative List in the Fourth Schedule".
18. 73. In clause (1), the words and figure "or Article 71" shall be omitted.
19. 75. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely :--
"75.
President's assent to Bills.
(1)
When a Bill is presented to the President for assent, the President shall, within forty-five days,--
(a)
assent to the Bill; or
(b)
in the case of a Bill other than a Money Bill, return the Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) with a message requesting that the Bill, or any specified provision thereof, be reconsidered and that any amendment specified in the message be considered.
(2)
When the President has returned a Bill to the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), it shall be reconsidered by the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) in joint sitting and, If it is again passed, with or without amendment, by the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), by the votes of the majority of the total membership of the two Houses, it shall be again presented to the President and the President shall assent thereto.
(3)
When the President has assented to a Bill, it shall become law and be called an Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).
(4)
No Act of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), and no provision in any such Act, shall be invalid by reason only that some recommendation, previous sanction or consent required by the Constitution was not given if that Act was assented to in accordance with the Constitution.
20. 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95 and 96 For these Articles the following shall be substituted, namely: -
"90.
Exercise of executive authority of the Federation.
The executive authority of the Federation shall vest in the President and shall be exercised by him, either directly or through officers subordinate to him, in accordance with the Constitution.


91.
The Cabinet.
(1)
There shall be a Cabinet of Ministers, with the Prime Minister at its head to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions.
(2)
The President shall in his discretion appoint from amongst the members of the National Assembly a Prime Minister who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly.
(3)
The person appointed under clause (2) shall, before entering upon the office make before the President oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule and shall within a period of sixty days thereof obtain a vote of confidence from the National Assembly.
(4)
The Cabinet, together with the Ministers of State, shall be collectively responsible to the National Assembly.
(5)
The Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, but the President shall not exercise his powers under this clause unless he is satisfied that the Prime Minister does not command the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly.
(6)
The Prime Minister may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office.
(7)
A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the National Assembly shall, at the expiration of that period, cease to be a Minister and shall not before the dissolution of that Assembly be again appointed a Minister unless he is elected a member of that Assembly:
Provided that nothing contained in this clause shall apply to a Minister who is a member of the Senate.
(8)
Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as disqualifying the Prime Minister or any other Minister or a Minister of State for continuing in office during any period during which the National Assembly stands dissolved, or as preventing the appointment of any person as Prime Minister or other Minister or as Minister of State during any such period.


92.
Federal Ministers and Ministers of State.
(1)
Subject to clauses (7) and (8) of Article 91, the President shall appoint Federal Ministers and Ministers of State from amongst the members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) on the advice of the Prime Minister:
Provided that the number of Federal Ministers and Ministers of State who are members of the Senate shall not at any time exceed one-fourth of the number of Federal Ministers.
(2)
Before entering upon office, a Federal Minister or Minister of State shall make before the President oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.
(3)
A Federal Minister or Minister of State may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President resign his office or may be removed from office by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.


93.
Advisers.
(1)
The President may, on the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint not more than five Advisors, on such terms and conditions as he may determine.
(2)
The provisions of Article 57 shall also apply to an Advisor.


94.
Prime Minster continuing in office.
The President may ask the Prime Minister to continue to hold office until his successor enters upon the office of Prime Minister.


95.
Vote of no confidence against Prime Minister.
(1)
A resolution for a vote of no confidence moved by not less than twenty per centum of the total membership of the National Assembly may be passed against the Prime Minister by the National Assembly.
(2)
A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be voted upon before the expiration of three days, or later than seven days, from the day on which such resolution in moved in the National Assembly.
(3)
A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be moved in the National Assembly while the Assembly is considering demands for grants submitted to it in the Annual Budget Statement.
(4)
If the resolution referred to in clause (1) is passed by a majority of the total membership of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister shall cease to hold office.".
21. 99. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely: -
"99.
Conduct of business of Federal Government.
(1)
All executive actions of the Federal Government shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.
(2)
The President shall by rules specify the manner in which orders and other instruments made and executed in his name shall be authenticated, and the validity of any order or instrument so authenticated shall not be questioned in any Court on the ground that it was not made or executed by President.
(3)
The President shall also make rules for the allocation and transaction of the Federal Government.".
22. 101.
1.
In clause (1), after the words "President" at the end, the words "in his discretion" shall be added.
2.
After clause (4), the following new clause shall be added, namely: --
"(5)
The President may make such provision as he thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of Governor.".
23. 105. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"105.
Governor to act on advice, etc.
(1)
Subject to Constitution, in the performance of his functions, Governor shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet, Chief Minister or appropriate Minister".

Provided that the Governor may require the cabinet to reconsider such advice, whether generally or otherwise, and the governor shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration;

Provided further that, in respect of the following matters, the Governor shall, subject to the previous approval of the President, act in his discretion, namely:--
(a)
appointment of the Chief Minister;
(b)
dismissal of Cabinet which has lost the confidence of the Provincial Assembly; and
(c)
dissolution of the Provincial Assembly, when an appeal to the electorate is necessary.
(2)
The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered to the Governor by the Chief Minister, the Cabinet or a Minister shall not be enquired into in, or by, any Court, tribunal or other authority.
(3)
Where the Governor dissolves the Provincial Assembly, he shall appoint, in his discretion, but with the previous approval of the President, a caretaker Cabinet.
(4)
The powers conferred by this Article on the President shall be exercised by him in his discretion.
(5)
The provision of clause (3) of Article 48 shall have effect in relation to a Governor as if reference therein to "President" were reference to "Governor".
24. 106.
1.
In clause (2),--
(a)
in paragraph (b), for the word "eighteen" the word "twenty-one" shall be substituted;
(b)
in paragraph (d), for the colon at the end a full-stop shall be substituted; and
(c)
the proviso shall be omitted.


2.
For clause (3) the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"(3)
In addition to the seats in the Provincial Assemblies for the Provinces of Baluchistan, the Punjab, the North-West Frontier and Sind specified in clause (1), there shall be in those Assemblies the number of seats hereinafter specified for non-Muslims--
Province Christians Hindus and Persons belonging to the Scheduled Castes Sikh, Buddhist and Parsi Communities and other non-Muslims Persons Belonging to the Qadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves Ahmadis)
Baluchistan 1 1 1 --
The North-West Frontier Province 1 -- 1 1
The Punjab 5 1 1 1
Sind 2 5 1 1
Explanation. Where no independent seat is allocated to a minority in a Province for being very small in number, the seat allocated jointly to all other non-Muslims in that Province shall be deemed to include that minority."


3.
For clause (5) the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"(5)
The members to fill the seats referred to in clause (3) shall be elected, simultaneously with the members to fill the seats referred to in clause (1), on the basis of separate electorates by direct and free vote in accordance with law.
(6)
As soon as practicable after the general election to a Provincial Assembly, the members to fill seats in that Assembly reserved for women shall be elected in accordance with law on the basis of the system of proportionate representation by means of a single transferable vote by the electoral college consisting of the persons elected to that Assembly."
25. 113. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"113.
Qualifications and disqualifications membership of Provincial Assembly.
The qualifications and disqualifications for membership of the National Assembly set out in Articles 62 and 63 shall also apply for membership of a Provincial Assembly as if reference therein to "National Assembly" were a reference to "Provincial Assembly.".
26. 116. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"116.
Governor's assent to Bills.
(1)
When a Bill has been passed by the Provincial Assembly, it shall be presented to the Governor for assent.
(2)
When a Bill is presented to the Governor for assent, the Governor shall, within forty-five days,-
(a)
assent to the Bill; or
(b)
in the case of a Bill other than a Money Bill, return the Bill to the Provincial Assembly with a message requesting that the Bill, or any specified provision thereof, be reconsidered and that any amendment specified in the message be considered.
(3)
When the Governor has returned a Bill to the Provincial Assembly, if it is again passed, with or without amendment, by the Provincial Assembly, by the votes of the minority of the total membership of the Provincial Assembly, it shall be again presented to the Governor and the Governor shall assent thereto.
(4)
When the Governor has assented to a Bill it shall become law and be called an Act of Provincial Assembly.
(5)
No Act of a Provincial Assembly, and no provision in any such Act, shall be invalid by reason only that some recommendation, previous sanction or consent required by the Constitution was not given if that Act was assented to in accordance with the Constitution.".
27. 129, 130 and 131. For these Articles the following shall be substituted, namely :--
"129.
Exercise of executive authority of the Province.
The executive authority of the Province shall vest in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him, in accordance with the Constitution.


130.
The Cabinet.
(1)
There shall be a Cabinet of Ministers, with the Chief Minister as its head, to aid and advice the Governor in the exercises of his functions.
(2)
The Governor shall appoint from amongst the members of the Provincial Assembly, a Chief Minister who, in his opinion is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of the Provincial Assembly.
(3)
The person appointed under clause (2) shall, before entering upon office, make before the Governor oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule and shall within a period of sixty days thereof obtain a vote of confidence from the Provincial Assembly.
(4)
The Cabinet shall be collectively responsible to the Provincial Assembly.
(5)
The Chief Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor, but the Governor shall not exercise his powers under this clause unless he is satisfied that the Chief Minister does not command the confidence of the majority of the members of the Provincial Assembly.
(6)
The Chief Minister may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Governor, resign his office.
(7)
A Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the Provincial Assembly shall, at the expiration of that period, cease to be a Minister, and shall not before the dissolution of that Assembly be again appointed a Minister unless he is elected a member of that Assembly.
(8)
Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as disqualifying the Chief Minister or any other Minister for continuing in office during any period during which the Provincial Assembly stands dissolved, or as preventing the appointment of any person as Chief Minister or other Minister during any such period.


131.
Duties of Chief Minister in relation to Governor.
It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister--
(a)
to communicate to the Governor all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the Province and proposals for legislation;
(b)
to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Province and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and
(c)
If the Governor so requires, to submit for consideration of the Cabinet any matter on which a decision has been taken by the Chief Minister or a Minister but which has not been considered by the Cabinet.".
28. 132 & 133 For these Articles the following shall be substituted, namely: -
"132.
Provincial Ministers.
(1)
Subject to clauses (7) and (8) of Article 130, the Governor shall appoint Provincial Ministers from amongst members of the Provincial Assembly on the advice of the Chief Minister.
(2)
Before entering upon office a Provincial Minister shall make before the Governor oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule.
(3)
A Provincial Minister may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Governor, resign his office or may be removed from office by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister.


133.
Chief Minister continuing in office.
The Governor may ask the Chief Minister to continue to hold office until his successor enters upon the office of Chief Minister.".
29. 134 & 135 These Articles shall be omitted.
30. 136. For these Articles the following shall be substituted, namely: -
"136.
Vote of no-confidence against Chief Minister.
(1)
A resolution for a vote of no confidence moved by not less than twenty per centum of the total membership of the Provincial Assembly may be passed against the Chief Minister by the Provincial Assembly.
(2)
A resolution referred to in clause (1) shall not be voted upon before the expiration of three days, or later than seven days, from the day on which such resolution is moved in the Provincial Assembly.
(3)
If the resolution referred to in clause (1) is passed by a majority of the total membership of the Provincial Assembly, the Chief Minister shall cease to hold office.".
31. 139. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"139.
Conduct of business of Provincial Government.
(1)
All executive actions of the Provincial Government shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor.
(2)
The Governor shall by rules specify the manner in which orders and other instruments made and executed in his name shall be authenticated, and the validity of any order or instrument so authenticated shall not be questioned in any Court on the ground that it was not made or executed by the Governor.
(3)
The Governor shall also make rules for the allocation and transaction of the business of the Provincial Government.".
32. Chapter 3, Part V. In Part V, in Chapter 3, before Article 153, the following new Article shall be inserted, namely:-
"152-A
National Security Council.
(1)
There shall be a National Security Council to make recommendations relating to the issue of a Proclamation of Emergency under Article 232, security of Pakistan and any other matter of national importance that may be referred to it by the President in consultation with the Prime Minister.
(2)
The National Security Council shall consist of the President, the Prime Minister, the Chairman of the Senate, the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, the Chiefs of Staff of the Pakistan Army, the Pakistan Navy and the Pakistan Air Force and the Chief Ministers of the Provinces.".
33. 175 In clause (3), for the word "five" the word "fourteen" shall be substituted.
34. 179. *Clauses (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) shall be omitted.

*[Vide Explanation under Article 2 (1) of the Laws (Continuance in Force) Order, 1977 (C.M.L.A. Order No.1 of 1977)]
35. 180. For the words "one of the Judges of the Supreme Court who have not previously held the office of Chief Justice of Pakistan otherwise than under this Article" the words "the most senior of the other Judges of the Supreme Court" shall be substituted.
36. Chapter 2, Part-VII After Article 186, the following new Article shall be inserted, namely:-
"186-A
Power of Supreme Court to transfer cases.
The Supreme Court may, if it considers it expedient to do so in the interest of justice, transfer any case, appeal or other proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.".
37. 195. *Clauses (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6) shall be omitted.
38. 196. For the words "one of the Judges of the High Court who have not previously held the office of Chief Justice of the High Court otherwise than under this Article" the words and commas "one of the other Judges of the High Court, or may request one of the Judges of the Supreme Court," shall be substituted.
39. 198. This Article shall be re-numbered as clause (1) and, after clause (1) re-numbered as aforesaid, the following new clauses shall be added, namely:-
"(2)
Each High Court and the Judges and divisional Courts thereof shall sit at its principal seat and the seats of its Benches and may hold, at any place within its territorial jurisdiction, circuit Courts consisting of such of the Judges as may be nominated by the Chief Justice.
(3)
The Lahore High Court shall have a Bench each at Bahawalpur, Multan and Rawalpindi; the High Court of Sind shall have a Bench at Sukkur; the Peshawar High Court shall have a Bench each at Abbottabad and Dera Ismail Khan and the High Court of Baluchistan shall have a Bench at Sibi.
(4)
Each of the High Courts may have Benches at such other places as the Governor may determine on the advice of the Cabinet and in consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court.
(5)
A Bench referred to in clause (3), or established under clause (4), shall consist of such of the Judges of the High Court as may be nominated by the Chief Justice from time to time for a period of not less than one year.
(6)
The Governor in consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court shall make rules to provide the following matters, that is to say,--
(a)
assigning the area in relation to which each Bench shall exercise jurisdiction vested in the High Court; and
(b)
for all incidental, supplemental or consequential matters.".
40. 199.
1.
Clauses (3A), (3B) and (3C), as they stood immediately before the fifth day of July, 1977, and clauses (3A), (3B) and (3C) as inserted by the Constitution (Amendment) Order, 1980 (P.O. No. 1 of 1980), shall be omitted.
2.
In clause (4), in paragraph (b), after the words "public interest", the word " or state property" shall be inserted.
3.
In clause (4A),-
After the word and comma "with,", the words "state property or" shall be inserted; and
(b)
For the words "sixty days" the words "six months" shall be substituted.
4.
After clause (4A), amended as aforesaid, the following new clause shall be inserted, namely:-
"(4B)
Every case in which, on an application under clause (1), the High Court has made an interim order shall be disposed of by the High Court on merits within six months from the day on which it is made, unless the High Court is prevented from doing so for sufficient cause to be recorded.".
41. 200.
1.
In clause (1), in the proviso, for the words "one year" the words "two years" shall be substituted.
2.
For clause (2) the following shall be substituted, namely:--
"(2)
Where a Judge is so transferred or is appointed to an office other than that of Judge at a place other than the principal seat of the High Court, he shall, during the period for which he serves as a Judge of the High Court to which he is transferred, or holds such other office, be entitled to such allowances and privileges, in addition to his salary, as the President may, by order, determine.".
3.
In clause (3), the following Explanation shall be added at the end, namely: -
"Explanation. In this Article, " High Court" includes a bench of a High Court.".
42. 203 B In paragraph (c), for the word "five" the word "ten" shall be substituted.
43. 203 C After clause (4A), the following new clauses shall be inserted, namely: -
"(4B)
The President may, at any time, by order in writing, -
(a)
modify the term of appointment of a Judge;
(b)
assign to a Judge any other office; and
(c)
require a Judge to perform such other functions as the President may deem fit; and pass such other order as he may consider appropriate.
Explanation. In this clause and clause (4C), " Judge" includes Chief Justice.
(4C)
While he is performing the functions which he is required under clause (4B) to perform, or holding any other office assigned to him under that clause, a Judge shall be entitled to the same salary, allowances and privileges as are admissible to the Chief Justice or, as the case may be, Judge of the High Court."
44. 204. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely: -
"204.
Contempt of Court.
(1)
In this article, "court" means the Supreme Court or High court.
(2)
A court shall have power to punish any person who -
(a)
abuses, interferes with or obstructs the process of the court in any way or disobeys any order of the court;
(b)
scandalizes the court or otherwise does anything which tends to bring the Court or a Judge of the Court in to hatred, ridicule or contempt;
(c)
does anything which tends or prejudice the determination of a matter pending before the Court; or
(d)
does any other thing which, by law, constitutes contempt of the Court.
(3)
The exercise of the power conferred on as Court by this Article may be regulated by law and, subject to law, by rules made by the Court.".
45. 212 A. This Article shall stand omitted on such day as the President may appoint.
46. 213. In clause (1), after the word "President" at the end, the words "in his discretion" shall be added.
47. 232. In clause (2), for paragraph (a) the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"(a)
Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) shall have power to make laws for a Province, or any part thereof, with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Federal Legislative List or the concurrent Legislative List;".
48. 239. For this Article the following shall be substituted, namely:-
"239.
Constitution amendment Bill.
(1)
A Bill to amend the Constitution may originate in either House and when the Bill has been passed by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House it shall be transmitted to the other House.
(2)
If the Bill is passed without amendment by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total member-ship of the House to which it is transmitted under clause (1), it shall be transmitted to all the Provincial Assemblies.
(3)
If the Bill is passed with amendment by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House to which it is transmitted under clause (1), it shall be reconsidered by the House in which it had originated; and if the Bill as amended by the former House is passed by the latter by the votes of not less than two-thirds of its total membership it shall be transmitted to all the Provincial Assemblies.
(4)
Subject to clause (5), if the Bill transmitted to the Provincial Assemblies under clause (2) or clause (3) is passed by each such Assembly by a majority of the total number of its members present and voting, it shall be presented to the President for assent.
(5)
A Bill to amend the Constitution which would have the effect of altering the limits of a Province shall not be presented to the President for assent unless it has been passed by the Provincial Assembly of that Province by the votes of not less than two-thirds of its total membership.
(6)
No amendment of the Constitution shall be called in question in any Court on any ground whatsoever.
(7)
For the removal of doubt, it is hereby declared that there is no limitation whatever on the power of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) to amend by way of addition, modification or repeal any of the provisions of the Constitution.".
49. 242. After clause (1), the following new clause shall be inserted, namely:-
"(l A)
The Chairman of the Public Service Commission constituted in relation to the affairs of the Federation shall be appointed by the President in his discretion.".
50. 243.
1.
After clause (1), the following new clause shall be inserted, namely:-
"(l A)
Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces shall vest in the President.".
2.
In clause (3), in paragraph (c), after the word "appoint", the words and commas "in his discretion the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee." shall be inserted.
51. 255. In clause (1), for the words "be made in" the words "preferably be made in Urdu or" shall be substituted.
52. Chapter 7, Part XII In Part XII, in Chapter 7, after Article 270, the following new Articles shall be inserted, namely:-
"270 A
Validation of President's Orders etc.
(1)
The proclamation of the fifth day of July, 1977, all President's Orders, Martial Law Regulations, Martial Law Orders and all other laws made between the fifth day of July, 1977, and the date on which this Article comes into force, are hereby declared, notwithstanding any judgment of any Court, to have been validly made by competent authority and, notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, shall not be called in question in any Court on any ground whatsoever.
(2)
All orders made, proceedings taken and acts done by any authority, or by any person, which were made, taken or done, or purported to have been made, taken or done, between the fifth day of July, 1977, and the date on which this Article comes into force, in exercise of the powers derived from any Proclamation, President's Orders, Martial Law Regulations, Martial Law Orders, enactments, notifications rules, orders or bye-laws, or in execution of or in compliance with any order made or sentence passed by any authority in the exercise or purported exercise of powers as aforesaid, shall, notwithstanding any judgment of any Court, be deemed to be and always to have been validly made, taken or done and shall not be called in question in any Court on any ground whatsoever.
(3)
All President's Orders, Martial Law Regulations, Martial Law Orders, enactments, notifications, rules, orders or bye-laws in force immediately before the date on which this Article comes into force shall continue in force until altered, repealed or amended by competent authority.
(4)
No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie in any Court against any authority or any person, for or on account of or in respect of any order made, proceedings taken or act done whether in the exercise or purported exercise of the powers referred to in clause (2) or in execution of or in compliance with orders made or sentences passed in exercise or purported exercise of such powers.
(5)
For the purposes of clauses (1), (2) and (4), all orders made, proceedings taken, acts done or purporting to be made, taken or done by any authority or person shall be deemed to have been made, taken or done in good faith and for the purpose intended to be served thereby.
(6)
Any of the President's Orders referred to in clause (1) may be amended in the manner provided for amendment of the Constitution.
Explanation. In this Article, "President's Orders" includes "President and Chief Martial Law Administrator's Orders", and Chief Martial Law Administrator's Orders.".
270B.
Election to be deemed to be held under Constitution. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution, the elections held under the Houses of Parliament and Provincial Assemblies (Elections) Order, 1977, to the Houses of Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies shall be deemed to have been held under the Constitution and shall have effect accordingly.".
53. New Annex After Article 280, the following Annex shall be inserted, namely:-

"ANNEX

(Article 2A)

The Objectives Resolution

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful:

Whereas sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah Almighty alone and the authority, which he has delegated to the State of Pakistan, through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;

This Constituent Assembly representing the people of Pakistan resolves to frame a constitution for the sovereign independent State of Pakistan;

Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people;

Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social Justice as enunciated by Islam shall be fully observed;

Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah;

Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities to profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures;

Wherein the territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be prescribed;

Wherein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality;

Wherein adequate provision shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes;

Wherein the independence of the Judiciary shall be fully secured ;

Wherein the integrity of the territories of the Federation, its independence and all its rights including its sovereign rights on land, sea and air shall be safeguarded;

So that the people of Pakistan may prosper and attain their rightful and honoured place amongst the nations of the world and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity.".
54. Second Schedule For this Schedule, the Schedule set out in the Schedule to this Order shall be substituted.
55. Third Schedule
1.
In the oath of office relating to the Chairman or member of the Federal Shariat Court, for the word "Chairman", twice occurring, the words "Chief Justice", and for the word "member", twice occurring, the word "Judge" shall be substituted.


2.
In the oaths of office set out in this Schedule, the following paragraph shall be added at the end, namely:-
"May Allah Almighty help and guide me (A'meen).".

THE SCHEDULE

"SECOND SCHEDULE

[Article 41(3)]

Election of President

1.
The Chief Election Commissioner shall hold and conduct election to the office of President, and shall be the Returning Officer for such election.
2.
The Chief Election Commissioner shall appoint Presiding Officers to preside at the meeting of the members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and at the meetings of the members of the Provincial Assemblies.
3.
The Chief Election Commissioner shall by public notification fix the time and place for depositing nomination papers, holding a scrutiny, making withdrawals, if any, and holding the poll, if necessary.
4.
At any time before noon on the day fixed for nomination any member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or of a Provincial Assembly may nominate for election as President a person qualified for election as President by delivering to the Presiding Officer a nomination paper, signed by himself as proposer and by another member of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or, as the case may be Assembly as seconder, together with a statement signed by the person nominated that he consents to the nomination:

Provided that no person shall subscribe, whether as proposer or as seconder, more than one nomination paper at any one election.
5.
The scrutiny shall be held by the Chief Election Commissioner at the time and place fixed by him, and if after scrutiny only one person remains validly nominated, the Chief Election Commissioner shall declare that person to be elected, or if more than one person remains validly nominated, he shall announce, by public notification, the names of the persons validly nominated, to be hereinafter called the candidates.
6.
A candidate may withdraw his candidature at any time before noon on the day fixed for this purpose by delivering a notice in writing under his hand to the Presiding Officer with whom his nomination paper has been deposited, and a candidate who has given a notice of withdrawal of his candidature under this paragraph shall not be allowed to cancel that notice.
7.
If all but one of the candidates has withdrawn, that one shall be declared by the Chief Election Commissioner to be elected.
8.
If there is no withdrawal, or if, after withdrawals have taken place, two or more candidates are left, the Chief Election Commissioner shall announce by public notification the names of the candidates, and their proposers and seconders, and shall proceed to hold a poll by secret ballot in accordance with the provisions of the succeeding paragraphs.
9.
If a candidate whose nomination has been found to be in order dies after the time fixed for nomination, and a report of his death is received by the Presiding Officer before the commencement of the poll, the Presiding Officer shall, upon being satisfied of the fact of the death of the candidate, countermand the poll and report the fact to the Chief Election Commissioner, and all proceedings with reference to the election shall be commenced anew in all respects as if for a new election:

Provided that no further nomination shall be necessary in the case of a candidate whose nomination was valid at the time of the countermanding of the poll:

Provided further that no person who has under paragraph 6 of this Schedule given notice of withdrawal of his candidature before the countermanding of the poll shall be ineligible for being nominated as a candidate for the election after such countermanding.
10.
The poll shall be taken at the meetings of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) and of each Provincial Assembly, and the respective Presiding Officers shall conduct the poll with the assistance of such officers as they may, with the approval of the Chief Election Commissioner, respectively appoint.
11.
A ballot paper shall be issued to every member of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), and of each Provincial Assembly, who presents himself for voting at the meeting of the members of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) or, as the case may be of the Provincial Assembly of which he is a member (hereinafter referred to as a person voting, and he shall exercise his vote personally by marking the paper in accordance with the provisions of the succeeding paragraphs.
12.
The poll shall be by secret ballot by means of ballot papers containing the names of all the candidates in alphabetical order who have not withdrawn, and a person voting shall vote by placing a mark against the name of the person for whom he wishes to vote.
13.
Ballot papers shall be issued from a book of ballot papers with counter-foils, each counterfoil being numbered; and when a ballot paper is issued to a person voting his name shall be entered on the counterfoil, and the ballot paper shall be authenticated by the initials of the Presiding Officer.
14.
A ballot paper having been marked by the person voting shall be deposited by that person in a ballot-box to be placed in front of the Presiding Officer.
15.
If a ballot paper is spoiled by a person voting he may return it to the Presiding Officer, who shall issue a second ballot paper, canceling the first ballot paper and marking the cancellation on the appropriate counterfoil.
16.
A ballot paper shall be invalid if -
(i)
there is upon it any name, word or mark, by which the person voting may be identified; or
(ii)
it does not contain the initials of the Presiding Officer; or
(iii)
it does not contain a mark ; or
(iv)
a mark is placed against the names of two or more candidates; or
(v)
there is any uncertainty as to the identity of the candidate against whose name the mark is placed.
17.
After the close of the poll each Presiding Officer shall, in the presence of such of the candidates or their authorized representatives as may desire to be present, open and empty the ballot-boxes and examine the ballot papers therein, rejecting any which are invalid, count the number of votes recorded for each candidate on the valid ballot papers, and communicate the number of the votes so recorded to the Chief Election commissioner.
18.
(1)
The Chief Election Commissioner shall determine the result of the election in the following manner, namely -
(a)
the number of votes cast in the Majlis-e-Shoora ( Parliament) in favour of each candidate shall be counted;
(b)
the number of votes cast in a Provincial Assembly in favour of each candidate shall be multiplied by the total number of seats in the Provincial Assembly for the time being having the smallest number of seats and divided by the total number of seats in the Provincial Assembly in which the votes have been cast; and
(c)
the number of votes calculated in the manner referred to in clause (b) shall be added to the number of votes counted under clause (a).
Explanation. In this paragraph, "total number of seats" includes seats reserved for non-Muslims and women.
(2)
A fraction shall be rounded off to the nearest whole.
19.
The candidate who has obtained the largest number of votes complied in the manner specified in paragraph 18 shall be declared by the Chief Election Commissioner to be elected.
20.
Where at any poll any two or more candidates obtain an equal number of votes, the selection of the candidate to be elected shall be by drawing of lots.
21.
When, after any poll, the counting of the votes has been completed, and the result of the voting determined, the Chief Election Commissioner shall forthwith announce the result to those present, and shall report the result to the Federal Government, who shall forthwith cause the result to be declared by a public notification.
22.
The Chief Election Commissioner may, by public notification with the approval of the President, make rules for carrying out the purposes of this Schedule.".

Thanks to:: Mr. Abdul Hameed Cheema <ahchima@brain.net.pk>
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shehzaad@cs.stanford.edu